Chapter 1: Introduction to Biochemistry
1) Write the structure and significance of cyclic AMP
2) What are high energy compounds? Give two examples.
3) Write the structure and significance of ATP.
Chapter 2: Enzymes
1) Define an enzyme? Outline the IUB classification of enzymes with examples. Explain the mechanism of enzyme action.
2) Explain the factors affecting enzyme activity. Add a note on the properties of enzymes.
3) Define enzyme inhibition and discuss the different types of enzyme inhibitions.
4) What are isoenzymes? Describe their diagnostic applications.
5) What are coenzymes? Explain the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of niacin.
6) Discuss the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of vitamin B2 and B6.
7) Discuss the biochemical role of coenzyme forms of vitamin B1 and folic acid.
8) Discuss the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of vitamin B12.
8) What are allosteric enzymes? Give two examples.
9) Give Michaelis-Menten equation with notations used.
10) Give therapeutic uses of any two enzymes.
11) What is Line-Weaver Burk plot? Give its significance.
12) Define Vmax and write its significance.
13) Define Km and write its significance.
14) What are the two models to explain the active site of enzymes?
15) Define enzyme specificity. Give example.
16) Define holoenzyme and apoenzyme.
Chapter 3: Carbohydrate metabolism
1) Define glycolysis? Describe the biochemical pathway for the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate and lactate. Write about the energetics.
2) Explain the reactions sequence, significance and energetics of TCA cycle.
3) Define Gluconeogenesis and explain the reactions involved in it with its significance.
4) Explain glycogenesis and glycogenolysis.
5) Describe the steps involved in the complete oxidation of glucose to pyruvate under aerobic condition with its energetic.
6) Discuss the glucose tolerance test with its significance.
7) Outline the various biochemical reactions involved in HMP shunt pathway and write its significance.
8) Discuss the glycogen storage diseases.
9) Explain the hormonal regulation of blood glucose level in the body.
10) Give the significance of HMP shunt.
11) What is Diabetes mellitus? Mention its types.
12) What is the use of malate-aspartate shuttle?
13) What is the amphibolic role of TCA cycle?
14) What are anaplerotic reactions?
15) How many moles of ATPs are formed in glycolysis when the end product is a) Pyruvic acid and b) lactic acid.
16) What is galactose tolerance test? Write its significance.
17) Name the enzymes and coenzymes present in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)complex.
Chapter 4: Lipid metabolism
1) Describe the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on the role of cholesterol in the body.
1) Explain the β-oxidation of saturated fatty acids. Calculate the ATP generated on complete oxidation of palmitic acid.
2) Explain the reactions of palmitate synthesis, starting from acetyl CoA.
3) What are ketone bodies? Explain the formation and importance of ketone bodies.
4) Describe briefly the synthesis of bile acids. Add a note on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts.
5) What is the functional significance of fatty acid synthase complex?
6) Name three unsaturated fatty acids. Write the structure of one of them.
7) Enumerate the functions of unsaturated fatty acids.
8) Write the structure of cholesterol. What is the role of cholesterol in our body?
9) What are bile salts? Give their importance.
10) Name three biologically important compounds derived from the catabolism of cholesterol.
11) What is hypercholesterolemia? Name two disorders that result in hypercholesterolemia.
12) What are the two measures that can be used to control hypercholesterolemia?
13) What is fatty liver? Name the two causes responsible for fatty liver?
14) What is atherosclerosis?
15) What is the role carnitine in fatty acid oxidation?
16) What is the role of citrate in fatty acid synthesis?
17) What is ketosis? Name the two conditions which lead to ketosis.
18) What is ketolysis? Give its significance.
Chapter 5: Biological oxidation
1) Describe the components of ETC
2) What is oxidative phosphorylation? How does it differ from substrate level phosphorylation?
3) Explain the chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation.
4) Enumerate uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, write their mechanism of action.
5) Name two inhibitors of ETC and their sites of action.
6) What is substrate level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.
Chapter 6: Protein and amino acid metabolism
1) Explain the transamination reactions involved in the catabolism of amino acids.
2) Explain the deamination reactions involved in the catabolism of amino acids.
3) Describe the reactions of urea cycle.
4) Explain phenylketonuria and alkaptonuria.
5) What are porphoria? Explain the types and clinical manifestations of porphoria.
6) Explain the production of bile pigments.
7) What is jaundice and explain the different types of jaundice.
8) What are bile pigments, name the disease associated with their metabolism.
9) What are porphoria?
10) Define nitrogen balance and protein turnover.
11) What are transaminases? Write the diagnostic importance of two transaminases.
12) What is the normal blood urea level? Name two conditions in which blood urea level is elevated.
13) Name four metabolic disorders of urea cycle with enzyme defect.
14) What is maple syrup urine disease? What are its characteristics?
15) What is albinism? What are its characteristics?
16) What is homocystinuria? What are its characteristics?
17) What is jaundice?
Chapter 7: Nucleic acid metabolism
1) Describe the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides.
2) Explain the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides.
3) Explain in detail the semiconservative mode of DNA replication.
4) Explain in detail about biosynthesis of proteins.
5) Define mutation. Explain various types of the same.
6) Describe the different DNA repair mechanisms.
7) Define genetic code and describe its characteristic features.
8) What are Okazaki fragments?
9) What is Gout?
10) What are leading and lagging strands?
11) What are nucleotides? Name four nucleotides.
12) Enumerate the purine and pyrimidine bases present in DNA and RNA.
13) What is onion peel model of DNA replication?
14) Name two inhibitors of protein synthesis and their site of action.
Chapter 9: The kidney function tests
1) List out different kidney function tests Explain any two of them.
2) Enlist the tests to assess the renal function? Explain the clearance tests for creatinine and urea.
3) Mention the different kidney function tests. Explain in detail any two.
4) Write a note on urinary tract calculi.
5) Discuss the tests for NPN constituents.
6) Add a note on role of kidneys.
7) What is semi quantitative urine analysis?
8) What is urine concentration test? Give its significance.
9) What is creatinine clearance test? Give its significance
10) What are urinary tract calculi?
11) What is urea clearance test? Give its significance.
12) Name any four abnormal urine constituents.
Chapter 10: Liver function tests:
1) Discuss the test to assess the metabolic and detoxification capacity of liver.
2) Explain any two liver function tests.
3) Enlist the different liver function tests. Explain the dye test for excretory function of liver.
4) Explain the tests for hepatic dysfunction.
5) Write the principle and significance of SGPT and SGOT determination.
6) Give the dye test for excretory function of liver.
7) Name the tests to assess hepatic function.
8) Give the importance of SGPT and SGOT.
9) What is normal serum bilirubin level? Give its significance.
10) Give example for bile salt and bile pigments.
11) What is dye test for excretory function of liver?
Chapter 11: Lipid profile tests
1) Describe lipid profile tests.
2) Name the importance of phospholipids and give their physiological role.
3) How will you determine the total cholesterol in serum?
4) Add a note on HDL and LDL.
5) Write the composition and functions of lipoproteins.
6) List out lipid profile tests.
7) Differentiate between good and bad cholesterol.
8) Differentiate between triglyceride and lipoproteins.
9) Write the principle involved in the estimation of cholesterol in serum.
10) Write about HDL and LDL
11) What is the significance of lipid profiling?
Chapter 12: Immunochemical techniques
1) What is radioimmuno assay? Give its principle and applications.
2) What is ELISA? Give its principle and applications.
1) What is RIA? Give its significance.
2) What is ELISA? Give its significance.
Chapter 13: Electrolytes
1) How is the level of sodium determined in the body fluids?
2) Enumerate the functions of water.
3) How is the level of calcium determined in the body fluids?
4) How is the level of chloride determined in the body fluids?
5) Define hypokalemia and hyponatremia.
6) Write the composition of ORS.
7) Name the different fluid compartments in the body.
8) What is the role of kidney in water balance?
The following model questions are for the guidance of the candidates and academicians appearing and conducting PharmD exams. The question papers only serve the educational purpose of self evaluation and revision after the respective topic is read and understood. Hope you make the best use of them.