CHAPTER 1 : Gastrointestinal system

Peptic Ulcer Disease, Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Liver Disorders – Alcoholic Liver Disease, Viral Hepatitis Including Jaundice, Drug Induced Liver Disorders


1. What is peptic ulcer? Explain etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, lab tests and pharmacotherapy of PUD
2. Explain the pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of helicobacter pylori associated ulcers
3. What is gastro esophageal reflux disease? Discuss Etiology, pathogenesis clinical presentation and pharmacotherapy of GERD.
4. Discuss on pathophysiology with therapeutic intervention in the management of GERD
5. Discuss about etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations and pharmacotherapy of IBD.
6. What are the clinical presentation of Ulcerative colitis & Explain pharmacotherapy of Ulcerative colitis and complications?
7. What are the clinical presentation of Crohn’s disease & Explain pharmacotherapy and complication of Crohn’s disease?
8. Discuss about etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations and pharmacotherapy of ALD.
9. Explain in detail etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management of HBV. Add a note on preventive measures for hepatitis.
10. Explain in detail etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management of HCV with an emphasis on management in special population.
11. Pathogenesis and management of H.Pylori associated ulcer.
12. Write in detail about treatment of NSAIDs induced peptic ulcer.
13. Write a short note on 3 drugs and 4 drugs regime to eradicate H.Pylori associated ulcer
14. Write a short note on Zollinger- Ellison syndrome
15. Write a note on therapeutic approaches for the management of GERD in its various phases
16. Write the etiology and pharmacotherapy of GERD
17. Pharmacological and life style management of GERD.
18. Compare and contrast monotherapy and combine therapy in GERD
19. Differentiate between Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis? Explain pharmacotherapy of Crohn’s disease.
20. Differentiate between Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis? Explain pharmacotherapy of Ulcerative colitis.
21. Explain pharmacotherapy of Crohn’s disease.
22. Explain pharmacotherapy of Ulcerative colitis.
23. Draft an algorithm for the treatment of ulcerative colitis
24. Draft an algorithm for the treatment of Crohn’s disease.
25. Risk factors in alcoholic liver diseases and explain the effect of Hepatitis C in ALD.
26. Pathogenesis of Alcoholic liver disease and its management.
27. Explain Portal hypertension and its management in ALD
28. What are the goals in the treatment of acute HCV & discuss on general approach to treatment
29. Diagnosis and treatment algorithm of Hepatitis B
30. Write the signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Jaundice
31. Etiopathogenesis of Hepatitis A & B.
32. Explain about the groups recommended for pre exposure of Hepatitis B vaccination
33. Tabulate the recommended schedule of immunoprophylaxis to prevent perinatal or sexual transmission of HBV infections
34. Explain the various types of jaundice
35. Mention any 5 drugs which cause liver disorder. Explain any two with its mechanism
36. Explain various drug induced liver disorders with an example each.
37. Draft an algorithm for the evaluation and management of ulcer patients present with clinical symptoms.
38. Write the differences between gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
39. What are the factors that contribute to unsuccessful eradication of H pylori associated ulcers?
40. Write a short note on management of stress related mucosal bleeding
41. What are the different strategies used to reduce the risk of NSAID’s induced ulcers- related upper GI complications.
42. Treatment goals for peptic ulcer disease
43. Non-pharmacologic treatment of Peptic ulcer diseases
44. Classes of drugs used in Peptic ulcer disease.
45. Common forms of Peptic Ulcer Disease
46. Drug regimens for the eradication of H.Pylori infection
47. What is the clinical controversy in treatment of ulcer
48. Treatment of refractory ulcer
49. Complications of PUD
50. Diagnostic test for PUD
51. Write the diagnostic tests for GERD
52. Therapeutic interventions in the management of GERD.
53. Write the clinical presentation of GERD
54. Life style management GERD.
55. Factors which promote GERD.
56. List out the goals of treatment of GERD
57. Adverse effects of PPIs
58. Write the patients counseling for GERD
59. Explain invasive and noninvasive tests for H. pylori.
60. List out the drugs used in the treatment of IBD.
61. Types of clinical presentations of IBD.
62. Treatment goals of IBD26. Role of immunomodulators in IBD.
63. What are the common systemic manifestation of IBD
64. Complications of IBD
65. Effect of smoking in IBD
66. Patient counseling for IBD
67. Diagnosis and treatment of fatty liver
68. Define liver Cirrhosis?
69. Role of beta blockers in ALD
70. Management of portal hypertension in ALD
71. Management of variceal bleeding in ALD
72. Hepatic encephalopathy in ALD
73. List out the counseling points for ALD
74. Role of Disulfuram in ALD
75. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
76. List out the groups at increased risk of hepatitis A
77. Role of Immunoglobulin in prevention of hepatitis A
78. List out the clinical presentation of acute hepatitis A
79. Classify Jaundice
80. Write a note on first line therapy of HCV
81. Recommendations for HBV
82. Recommendations for HAV
83. Mention any 4 drugs which induces liver disorder
84. Write any 4 clinical presentation of drug induced liver disorder
85. Drug induced hepato cellular necrosis and cirrhosis.

CHAPTER 2 : Haematological systems

Anaemias, Venous Thromboembolism, Drug Induced Blood Disorders


1. Discuss etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapy of CVT.
2. Explain the role of Ascorbic acid and Folic acid in Anaemia
3. Add a note on therapeutic approach to the management of Anemia.
4. Discuss the pathogenesis and the management of Vitamin B12 deficiency in anemia.
5. Explain the symptoms and pharmcotherapeutic management of microcytic anemia
6. Discuss the patient education for outpatient VTE therapy
7. Treatment of VTE in pediatric patients
8. Explain treatment of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
9. Enumerate on drug induced Hemolytic anaemia
10. Enlist the types of drug induced hematological disorders with examples.
11. Give the definition, symptoms, classification and treatment in case of drug induced agranulocytosis.
12. Give the definition, symptoms, classification and treatment in case of drug induced Aplastic anemia
13. List drug induced blood disorders (Any 5) and explain the pharmacotherapy of any one.
14. What is the recommended dose and monitoring parameters for direct thrombin inhibitors to treat HITs
15. Define Aplastic anemia. Explain causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Aplastic anemia
16. Define and classify anaemia, discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of Thalassemia.
17. Enlist various types of anemia. Describe signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests and pharmacotherapy of any two.
18. Discuss etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sickle cell anemia.
19. Discuss etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sideroblastic anemia.
20. Management of CVT in pregnancy
21. Discuss etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapy of DVT.
22. Explain the role of iron and ascorbic acid in anaemia
23. Classifications of Anemia
24. Treatment goal of anemia
25. Etiology of pernicious anaemia.
26. Write the formula for calculating the dose of elemental Iron requirement for a patient in case of anaemia and blood loss.
27. ADRs of Iron Dextran
28. Diagnostic test for Aplastic anemia
29. Etiology of venous thromboembolism
30. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism.
31. Streptokinase.
32. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia.
33. Mention any 4 drugs which induce Thrombocytopenia
34. Mention any 4 drugs which induce agranulocytosis
35. Low molecular weight heparin V/S unfractionated heparin in VTE

CHAPTER 3 : Nervous systems

Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Stroke, Alzheimer's Disease


1. Discuss the different types of seizures. Explain pharmacotherapeutic approach to treat epilepsy.
2. Tabulate and discuss on the treatment algorthim and write the first line drugs for the different types of epilepsy
3. Explain etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment for Parkinson’s disease.
4. Discuss about the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and pharmacotherapy of Stroke
5. Write the pathogenesis and the clinical management of Alzheimer’s disease.
6. Explain the various stages of Alzheimer’s disease and their clinical manifestations.
7. Explain signs, symptoms and pharmacotherapy of Ischemic stroke. What are the desired outcomes in the treatment of stroke?
8. Write a note on evaluation of therapeutic outcomes & Monitoring of therapeutic care plan in stroke. Draft the algorithm for stroke and TIA (Transient ischemic attack) management
9. What is end of dose deterioration (wearing off effect) and how to overcome during pharmacotherapy of Parkinsonism? What are the approaches to drug induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
10. Explain the cascade of cerebral ischemia and the risk factors in ischemic stroke.
11. Management of seizure disorder during pregnancy.
12. Draft the algorithm for management of epilepsy
13. What are the clinical presentations of epilepsy?
14. Write a note on American academy of neurology guideline for discontinuing AEDs in seizure free patients.
15. Management of Status epilepticus
16. Write a note on Guidelines applicable for effective drug control for epilepsy.
17. Explain clinical features and diagnosis including stages of Parkinson’s disease.
18. Explain with algorithm for the treatment of early IPD and advanced IPD
19. Explain the clinical manifestation of Parkinson’s disease
20. Discuss the drug therapy monitoring of Parkinson's disease
21. What are the merits and demerits of Anticholinergic medication in Parkinson’s disease
22. Discuss on motor fluctuations and possible interventions in IPD
23. Explain the drug induced Parkinson’s disease
24. What is the general approach in treatment of stroke patients?
25. Explain signs, symptoms and pharmacotherapy of ischemic Stroke
26. What are the desired outcomes in treatment of stoke
27. What are the non pharmacological therapy of ischemic stroke
28. Write the clinical presentations of AD
29. List out the laboratory test in diagnosing AD
30. Etiology and pathophysiology of AD.
31. Write a note on management of AD
32. Explain the supportive care for AD.
33. Drugs of choice for specific seizure disorder
34. Diagnosis of Epilepsy.
35. List the adverse effects of valproate sodium
36. List the adverse effects of phenytoin
37. TDM of phenytoin
38. International classification of epileptic seizers.
39. Non pharmacological therapy for epilepsy
40. First line drugs in treatment of partial seizures
41. First line drug and alternative drug in generalized seizures
42. Treatment of tonic-clonic epilepsy
43. Management of febrile seizures in pediatrics
44. Explain various stages of Parkinson’s disease
45. Motor complications of Levodopa
46. Rationality of using Levodopa and Carbidopa combination.
47. Antiparkinson’s drugs
48. What is the genetic role in the development of Parkinson’s disease
49. Diagnosis of Stroke
50. Role of fibrinoytics in Ischemic Stroke
51. What is the advantage of heparin preferred over warfarin in Stroke
52. Clinical presentation of Hemorrhagic stroke
53. Write any 2 environmental factors which leads to AD
54. Benfits of anticholinesterases in AD
55. List out cognitive and non cognitive symptoms of AD
56. List out the laboratory test in diagnosing AD
57. What is the genetic role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease

CHAPTER 4 : Psychiatry disorders

Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Sleep Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorders


1. Define Schizophrenia. Explain in detail etiopathogenesis, sign and symptoms, Diagnosis and management of schizophrenia.
2. Explain the various theories and pathogenesis of schizophrenia its management.
3. Explain etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of Depression.
4. Mention the types of anxiety disorders and explain the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment for GAD.
5. Classify sleep disorders. Explain insomnia and pharmacotherapy of insomnia in detail.
6. Enlist various types of sleeping disorders. Describe signs and symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of narcolepsy.
7. Discuss on circadian rhythm disorders and its management
8. Explain goals of therapy, clinical presentation and pharmacotherapy of OCD
9. Discuss the different types of Schizophrenia.
10. Extrapyramidal side effects induced by antipsychotic drugs.
11. DSM IV TR criteria for schizophrenia
12. Stabilization therapy in schizophrenia
13. What are the initial treatment in an acute psychotic episode
14. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages long acting or depot injectable antipsychotics
15. What are the nonpharmacological approaches to the treatment of schizophrenia
16. What are the outcomes in evaluation of antipsychotic therapy
17. Explain the treatment options in Depression.
18. Treatment algorithm for bipolar disorder.
19. Management of antidepressants side effects
20. Write a short note on DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosis of depression
21. List out signs and symptoms of cocaine intoxication and withdrawal during treatment of depression
22. Role of Tricyclic antidepressant and SSRI’s in Anxiety disorders.
23 Pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder
24. Discuss on buspirone therapy in anxiety
25. What are the non pharmacological therapy of anxiety
26. List out various antidepressants used in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorders
27. What are the pharmacokinetic drug interactions with BZD
28. Define Narcolepsy. Explain symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Narcolepsy.
29. Pharmacotherapy of obstructive sleep apnea
30. Explain pharmacotherapy of OCD
31. Discuss on antidepressants used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
32. Mention positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
33. Non pharmacological approaches to the treatment of schizophrenia.
34. Why atypical antipsychotics are preferred than typical antipsychotics
35. What are the endocrine effects of antipsychotic agents
36. Extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotic agents
37. Symptoms of Depression
38. Clinical manifestation of Mania
39. Use of lithium in Mania
40. Role of dopamine in affective disorders
41. What are the effects of benzodiazepine discontinuation
42. Enlist the drug which induces anxiety
43. Enlist the drugs used in GAD (generalized anxiety disorder)
44. Treatment of SAD (social anxiety disorder)
45. Treatment of panic disorder
46. What are the serious complications of benzodiazepine therapy
47. Definition of Somnambulism
48. Nightmares and it’s causes
49. Define Narcolepsy
50. Nocturnal myoclonus (periodic leg movement )
51. Define Panic attack and obsessive compulsive disorder
52. Clinical manifestations of OCD
53. CBT (Cognitive behavioral therapy)
54. Classify sleep disorders
55. What are the alternative drug treatment available for OCD
56. Central sleep apnea
57. Classify OCD
58. Goals of OCD therapy
59. Non pharmacological therapy of OCD
60. List any four drugs causes insomnia
61. Nonpharmacological recommendations for insomnia
62. What are the goals to reduce the symptoms of acute depression
63. Phases of anxiety therapy
64. Obstructive sleep apnea
65. Withdrawal treatment of cocaine intoxication
66. Drug interactions with BZD
67. Dyssomnia

CHAPTER 5 : Pain Management

Including Pain Pathways, Neuralgias, Headaches.


1. Discuss on pharmacologic treatment of oncology patients
2. With a short note on pathophysiology and clinical presentation and explain the management of cluster headache.
3. Discuss the management of various types of Pain.
4. What are the barriers to effective pain management in cancer patients?
5. Nonpharmacological therapy of pain
6. Explain WHO pain ladder management
7. Explain various types of neuralgias and its management.
8. Explain trigeminal neuralgia and its management.
9. Tabulate, International Headache Society classification system with focus on clinical manifestations of migraine headache.
10. Detailed classification of headache
11. Pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of migraine headache.
12. Classify HIS diagnostic criteria for migraine
13. Draft the treatment algorithm for migraine headaches.
14. Discuss the pain management in cancer patients.
15. What are the characteristics of neuropathic pain
16. Major adverse effects of opioid analgesics.
17. Discuss on clinical presentation of pain
18. Give the grading scales of pain
19. Treatment goals for neuralgia due to herpes infection
20. Types of Neuralgia.
21. Management of Neuralgia.
22. First line treatment of migraine
23. Precipitating factors associated with migraine
24. Clinical presentation of migraine headache
25. List out the goals of therapy in migraine management.
26. Role of propranalol.
27. Non pharmacological management of migraine

CHAPTER 6 : Evidence Based Medicine


1. Write a checklist for critical appraisal of articles addressing pharmacotherapeutic decision
2. Write a note on level of evidence and strength of recommendation taxonomy in EBM.
3. What is EBM? Mention the modalities of EBM
4. What are the patient specific factors must be consider in the final analysis in EBM
5. Write short note on EBM process.
6. Define evidence based medicine, and write the different steps involved in EBM
7. Significance of EBM
8. Mention the modalities of EBM
9. Mention the patient specific factors to be considered in EBM
10. Mention the level of trust in EBM
11. Aims of EBM
12. Need of EBM
13. Recommendation taxonomy in EBM
14. Role of pharmacist in EBM
15. Critical appraisal.

The following model questions are for the guidance of the candidates and academicians appearing and conducting PharmD exams. The question papers only serve the educational purpose of self evaluation and revision after the respective topic is read and understood. Hope you make the best use of them.