The genetic basis underlying variation in drug response among individuals has become evident with the introduction of modern analytical methods for the analysis of gene sequence and expression. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genes affect the way people respond to drug therapy. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to individualize drug therapy to a person’s unique genetic makeup. The environment, diet, age, lifestyle, and state of health can influence a person’s response to medicine. An understanding of an individual’s genetic makeup is thought to be the key to creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety. Pharmacogenetics is an established discipline that studies the genetic basis of interindividual variability in the response to drug therapy, and allows for individualization of drug therapy. In contrast, pharmacokinetics provides a means for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug in various population subgroups and then applying the information to drug therapy for the average patient.
This topic describes: a. Genetic polymorphism in Drug metabolism: Cytochrome P-450 Isoenzymes. b. Genetic Polymorphism in Drug Transport and Drug Targets. c. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamic considerations.