Chapter 1A: Hypertension
1) Explain the pathophysiology and management of hypertension.
2) Explain the treatment protocol of Hypertension.
3) Explain in detail about compelling indication of Hypertension.
4) Explain the pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of hypertension.
5) Define and classify hypertension according to INC guidelines. Explain the etiology, pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of essential hypertension.
6) Discuss management of hypertension with treatment algorithm. Enumerate the risk factors and complications of Hypertension.
7) Define hypertension and write its types and aetiology
8) Explain Therapeutic management of hypertension with special reference to drug of
9) Write the management of Hypertensive crisis.
10) Explain clinical manifestations and complications of hypertension.
11) Write JNC 7 Classification of Hypertension.
12) Define Malignant Hypertension
13) Define Hypertensive Urgency and Hypertensive Emergency
14) Mention ADRs of diuretics.
15) Explain DASH therapy.
16) Why diuretic s are least preferred in Indian population for the management of
17) Define Pseudo hypertension and emergency hypertension.
18) Enlist ADRs of ACE Inhibitors.
19) Mention the ro le of diuretic s in hypertension therapy.
20) Define accelerated hypertension.
21) Defi ne Hypertensive crisis and classify it.
22) Define preeclampsia.
23) Define essential hypertension.
24) Define Cor-pulmonale.
Chapter 1B: Congestive cardiac failure
1) What is atherosclerosis? Explain the management of atherosclerosis.
2) Define Congestive heart failure and explain its management.
3) Explain the pharmacotherapy of congestive cardiac failure.
4) Define CCF. Write its aetiology. signs & symptoms of Cf'F.
5) Explain the role of ionotropic agents in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
6) Explain the rule of diuretics and sympathomimetics in congestive cardiac failure.
7) Mention the investigations performed to confirm the diagnosis of heart failure.
8) Explain the role of digoxin in congestive cardiac failure.
9) List the risk factors for congestive cardiac failure .
10) Define CCF.
11) Comment for diuretic and digoxin combination in management of congestive cardiac
12) ABCDE standard treatment for coronary heart disease.
13) Mention NYHA classification of functional status of the patient with heart failure.
14) List the clinical manifestations of heart failure .
15) Enlist vasodilators used in heart failure.
16) Enumerate ADR's of Digoxin.
17) Differentiate between right heart failure and left heart failure.
Chapter 1C: Angina Pectoris
1) Define angina pectoris. Describe its aetiology and pathogenesis.
2) Explain signs and symptoms and pharmacotherapy of angina.
3) Explain therapeutic management of Angina Pectoris.
4} Explain the role of nitrates in coronary heart disease.
5) Explain different types of angina pectoris and its management.
6) Define angina pectoris. outline different types of angina
7) Mention the role of Nitro-glycerine in angina
8) Mention the role of calcium channel blockers in angina
9) Mention diagnostic tests for angina pectoris.
10) Write the differential diagnosis between angina and myocardial infraction.
11) Define nitrate tolerance. How it can be prevented.
12) Write the mechanism of act ion of nitrates and list out its adverse effects.
13) Define variant angina.
14) Mention adverse effects of nitrates.
15) Differentiate between ISMN & ISDN.
Chapter 1D: Myocardial infarction
1) Explain the treatment algorithm for the treatment of acute MI.
2) Describe the aetiology, clinical features and investigations of ischemic heart disease.
3) Explain therapeutic management of MI.
4) Define myocardial infarction. Explain the etiopathogenesis, risk factors and treatment
5) Write the treatment algorithm for NSTEMI.
6) Mention any four Fibrinolytic agents .
7) Mention the indication and treatment regimen for Strepto kinase.
8) Mention the significance of ECG in myocardial infarction.
9) Differentiate between STEMI and NSTEMI.
10) Write the treatment goals of lHD.
11) Mention role of morphine in the management of myocardial infarction.
12) Enlist Diagnosis tests used for myocardial infarction.
13) Define myocardial infarction. Mention its risk factors.
14) Write the importance of lactate dehydrogenase and troponins.
15) Mention any four Fibrinolytic agents.
Chapter 1E: Hyperlipidemia
1) Explain Pharmacotherapy of hyperlipidaemias.
2) Explain etiopathogenesis of Hyperlipidaemias.
3) Write the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of dyslipidaemia.
4) Discuss the role of HMG CO-A reductase inhibitors and fibrates in the management of hyperlipidaemia.
5) Suggest in brief the life style modification of hyperlipidaemia
6) Explain the role of statins in hyperlipidaemia
7) Define diabetic dyslipidaemia
8) Mention any four ADRs of statins.
9) List the types of primary hyperlipidaemia
10) Write the dosage regimen of any two statins with their adverse effects
11) Write the complications of Hyperlipidaemias
12) Enlist different etiological conditions of Hyperlipidaemias
Chapter 1F: Electrophysiology of heart
1) Explain different phases of ECG.
2) Explain the electrophysiology of heart.
3) Mention the drugs which causes Q-T prolongation
4) Draw a neat labelled diagram of normal ECG. Enlist various intervals and what they represent.
5) Illustrate the electrophysiology of the heart.
Chapter 1G: Arrhythmias
1) Explain pharmacotherapy of cardiac arrhythmia
2) Exp lain the etiopathogenesis, pharmacotherapy for cardiac arrhythmia with treatment algorithm
3) Explain the pharmacology of arrhythmia.
4) Write in detail about aetiology, signs & symptoms of Arrhythmia.
5) Explain the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias
6) Explain different types of arrhythmia.
8) Explain the role of class-I anti-arrhythmic agents.
9) Enlist different types of Arrhythmias
10) Mention the clinical features of arrhythmia
11) Write the mechanism of action and adverse effects of Amiodarone.
Chapter 2A: Introduction to Pulmonary Function Test
1) Discuss in detail the significance of pulmonary function test in respiratory disorders
2) Differentiate lung volume tests and lung capacities with a neat illustration
3) Explain different Pulmonary function tests.
4) Discuss in detail importance of pulmonary function test in COPD and asthma.
5) What is the significance of Pulmonary Function test
6) Enlist different types of Pulmonary Function Test
7) Define lung volume and lung capacity
8) Mention the significance of Spirometry
9) Define tidal volume and vital capacity.
10) Define PEFR and FEVI.
Chapter 2B: Asthma
1) Discuss in detail treatment of asthma.
2) Discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and pharmacotherapy
3) Discuss the management of asthma with treatment algorithm.
4) Discuss in detail management of Acute Severe Asthma and write its algorithm.
5) Discuss in detail Etiopathogenesis of Asthma
6) Explain the role of inhaled beta agonists in the management of asthma.
7) Discuss in detail management of exercise induced Asthma
8) Discuss in detail step on therapy for Asthma
9) Write the Steps involved in using Metered Dose Inhalers.
10) Write the Pharmacological and non- pharmacological therapy for asthma.
11) Discuss the role of sympathomimetics and methyl xanthine in management of asthma.
12) Differentiate Extrinsic and Intrinsic as thma
13) Enlist triggering factors for Asthma
14) Enlist etiologic factors for Asthma
15) What are the sign and symptoms for Asthma
16) Write the difference between Asthma & COPD
17) Writ e the dosing of intravenous aminophylline in acute severe asthma.
18) Mention the Diet for asthma.
19) Define pulmonary embolism?
20) Differentiate between bronchitis and emphysema.
21) Define Cor-pulmonale
22) Mention the clinical presentations of Asthma.
Chapter 2C: COPD
1) Discuss in detail treatment of COPD.
2) Explain pharmacotherapy of COPD.
3) Discuss in detail Pharmacology of COPD.
4) Discuss in detail about etiopathogenesis of COPD
5) Discuss the GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD
6) Explain in detail non-pharmacological treatment of COPD.
7) Explain treatment algorithm of COPD in detail
8) Describe the role of antibiotics and corticosteroids in COPD
9) Explain the common therapeutic problems associated with stages of COPD.
10) Define COPD. List down its symptoms
11) Discuss the difference betvveen Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema based on clinical manifestations.
12) What is pack years? Give equation to calculate the same.
13) List out the Clinical manifestations for Chronic Bronchitis
14) What is Blue bloaters and Pink puffers.
15) Write a short note on smoking cessation in COPD.
16) Mention the role of corticosteroids in COPD.
17) List the Treatment goals of COPD.
18) Define Long Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT).
19) Mention Guidelines for prescribing LTOT.
20) Describe the mMRC scale.
Chapter 2D: Drug Induced Pulmonary disorders
1) Write a short note on Drugs induced Pulmonary disorders
2) Enumerate drug induced pulmonary diseases. Explain pharmacotherapy of any one of them.
3) List out the various drug induced pulmonary disorders. Explain any two mechanisms.
4) Give examples of drugs that causes Bronchospasm
5) Enlist the drugs causes Fibrosis
6) Name any four drugs that cause pulmonary disorders.
Chapter 3A: Diabetes
I) Discuss in detail general management of Type II Diabetes mellitus
2) Discuss in detail about Diabetes mellitus complications and its management.
3) Explain pathogenesis, diagnostic tests and Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes mellitus.
4) Explain the pharmacotherapy of IDDM/type I diabetes mellitus.
5) Explain the pathophysiology, symptoms, treatment goals and treatment of diabetes mellitus with oral drugs.
6) Define and classify diabetes mellitus .Discuss in detail about insulins in diabetic management.
7) Enumerate the various types of insulins and explain the insulin regimens in the management of type I diabetes mellitus.
8) Discuss the role of thiazolidinediones in the management of type II diabetes mellitus.
9) Explain the counselling points to diabetic patients with respect to diet and life style.
10) Explain the pharmacotherapy of type II DM emphasizing the ADR of each group of
11) Discuss in detail management of Diabetic ketoacidosis
12) Discuss in detail Pharmacology of type II diabetes mellitus.
13) Write a short note on Insulins
14) Differentiate Insulin Preparation based on Onset of action, duration of action and peak .
15) Differentiate Type I and Type II Diabetes mellitus
16) Discuss the complications involved in diabetes mellitus.
17) Define Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
18) Define Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.
19) Define diabetic foot.
20) Mention appropriate diet for hyperglycemic patients.
21) Why would nocturnal hypoglycacmia cause elevated blood glucose level in morning.
22) What are the types and their clinical features of diabetes mellitus?
23) Explain Patient counselling for patients taking insulin.
24) Explain Glucose tolerance test.
25) What is lipohypertropy.
26) What is gestational diabetes.
27) Enlist the various microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with
28) What is diabetic neuropathy.
29) What is diabetic nephropathy.
30) Define Diabetes mellitus
31) Discuss the difference between Type I and Type II Diabetes mellitus.
32) What are the sign and symptoms for Diabetes mellitus.
33) What is diabetic nephropathy.
34) Define HbA1C.
35) What is nocturnal hypoglycaernia?
Chapter 3B: Thyroid disease
1) Discuss in detail about Grave's disease.
2) Explain in detail about Anti-hyperthyroid drugs.
3) Discuss in detail management of Myxedema coma
4) Explain in detail about etiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of hyperthyroidism
5) Explain in detail about etiology. clinical manifestations and treatment of hypothyroidism.
6) Write a note on Goitre.
7) Explain treatment modalities of hypothyroidism.
8) Discuss the difference in Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism.
9) Enumerate 4 drug effects on thyroid function.
10) Define Grave's disease.
11) Mention Counselling points for patient on anti-thyroid drugs.
12) Enlist some adverse effects and contraindication of radioactive iodine
13) How does amiodarone causes Thyrotoxicosis.
14) Explain in brief about Thyroid ablative therapy.
15) What is hyperparathyroidism its causes and symptoms?
16) Mention the management of Iodine deficiency in pregnancy.
17) What is Thyroid storm.
18) What are the clinical features and diagnosis for Hyperthyroidism.
19) Discuss in detail about Hoshimoto disease.
20) What are the clinical features and diagnosis for Hypothyroid
21) Write a short note on Thyroxin.
22) Define thyrotoxicosis.
23) Explain thyroxin administration in pregnancy .
Chapter 3C: Oral Contraceptives
1) Write a note on Oral contraceptives.
2) Enlist the merits and demerits of various contraceptives.
3) Explain the Principles of oral contraception.
4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Oral contraceptives
5) Enlist the major adverse effects of Oral contraceptives
6) Enlist the various complications associated with the use of oral contraceptives.
7) Administration of estrogens.
8) Define mini pills.
9) Enlist patient instructions for using oral contraceptives.
10) Mention commonly prescribed oral contraceptives
11) Enlist the various types of oral contraceptives.
Chapter 3D: Hormone Replacement Therapy
1) What are the risks and benefit of Hormone therapy
2) Write a short note on Hormonal regimens
3) Explain hormone replacement therapy in detail.
4) Discuss the treatment objectives with the use of HRT in post -menopausal women.
5) Explain the need and importance of HRT.
6) Explain the general principles of hormone replacement therapy.
7) Mention the signs and symptoms of stopping HRT.
8) Define SERMS.
9) Mention the non-pharmacological treatment for menopausal symptoms.
10) What are the clinical features of Menopause.
11) What are the diagnosis parameters of Menopause.
12) Write a short note on administration of Estrogens.
13) Give example of five common combination Post-menopausal Hormone therapy regimens.
14) Mention the Risks of HRT.
15) Mention the need of HRT.
16) List the symptoms of menopause.
17) Define HRT and its significance.
18) Mention the importance of administration of estrogen.
19) Explain oestrogen and progesterone regimens for use in HRT.
Chapter 3E: Osteoporosis
1) Discuss in detail management of Osteoporosis.
2) Describe the clinical features, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of osteoporosis.
3) Discuss in detail etiopathogenesis of Osteoporosis
4) Write clinical manifestations. and treatment options of osteoporosis.
5) Explain in detail about treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women along with
its treatment algorithm.
6) Explain in detail about antiresorptive therapy for osteoporosis.
7) Define Osteoporosis
8) Define Osteoclast and Osteoblast
9) What are the clinical features of Osteoporosis
10) What are the treatment goals for Osteoporosis
11) Explain the role of Calcium in Osteoporosis
12) Enlist the drugs used for treating osteoporosis with their dose and adverse effects
13) Write the risk factors for osteoporosis
14) Enlist any four drugs which will cause osteoporosis.
15) Write the diagnostic tests for conforming osteoporosis.
16) Enlist the non-pharmacological therapy for osteoporosis.
17) Write the Importance of bisphosphonates in osteoporosis.
18) Enlist the ADRs of bisphosphonate therapy.
19) Define Glucocort icoids induced Osteoporosis.
20) Define RANK ligand.
21) Define T-score .
Chapter 4A: Osteoporosis
1. Write the guidelines for prescribing of drugs to paediatrics.
2. Discus the various formulas used in paediatric dosage calculation.
3. Discuss the various factors in selecting a drug dosage regimens in paediatric population.
4. Write a short note on prescribing guidelines for Paediatric patients
6. Classify paediatric age groups.
7. Write Young's formula.
8. Write Dilling's formula.
9. Write Fried' s formula.
10. Mention contraindicated drugs for paediatrics.
1. Give reason why chloramphenicol is contraindicated in paediatrics.
Chapter 4B: Geriatric Guidelines
1. Write the guidelines for prescribing of drugs to geriatrics
2. Discuss the various factors to be considered while prescribing the drugs in geriatrics .
3. Explain the pharmacokinetic alteration s in geriatric populations as by the age.
4. Explain the principles and goal s of drug therapy in geriatrics.
5. Why geriatric populations are more susceptible for ADR?
6. Enlist the drugs causing confusion in geriatrics.
7. Enlist some adverse effects of NSAIDs commonly seen among geriatrics .
8. Why dosage adjustment is required in renal impairment geriatric patients.
9. Mention the reasons for caution for drug use in elderly .
10. Name some common diseases associated with geriatrics.
Chapter 4C: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Guidelines
1. Enumerate the prescribing guidelines for pregnancy and lactation .
2. Explain the categorisation of drugs in pregnancy with suitable examples.
3. Explain in detail about drug dosing in pregnancy.
4 . Mention four drugs which are contra indicated In pregnancy and breast feeding and
mention the reasons.
5. Define the pregnancy category of drugs.
6. Enlist four teratogenic drugs.
7. Mention categorisation of drugs for pregnant and lactating mothers.
8. Name any three safer antibiotics used during lactation.
9. What is the effect of alcohol and cigarette smoking on pregnancy.
10. What are the risks associated with valproate treatment in pregnancy?
11. What are the safest antidepressants in the first trimester of pregnancy?
12. What effect is smoking likely to have on breast feeding?
Chapter 5A: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Guidelines
1. Explain the pharmacotherapy of glaucoma
2. Draw a neat algorithm for pharmacotherapy of open glaucoma.
3. List out distinguish features of open angle and closed angle glaucoma.
4. Explain in detail about etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management of chronic open angle glaucoma.
5. Mention the drugs used in the treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma.
6. Enlist the ocular and systemic side effects o f any 4 drug agents used in glaucoma.
7. Mention the counselling for patients taking eye drops.
8. Enlist the drugs contraindicated in narrow angle glaucoma.
9. Explain suitable alternative agent along with its strength for beta blockers in glaucoma.
10. Define I.O.P with its normal value.
11. Define trabecular meshwork and optic nerve fibre .
12. Differentiate between open angle and angle-closure glaucoma.
13. Discuss the non-pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.
14. Mention the drugs used to treat glaucoma.
15. What is open angle glaucoma.
16. Define and classify glaucoma.
17. Define glaucoma.
Chapter 5B: Conjunctivitis - Viral and Bacterial
l. Explain the treatment of viral conjunctivitis .
2. Explain the pharmacotherapy of bacterial conjunctivitis.
3. Describe the etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis.
4. Mention the signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis .
5. Differentiate between bacterial and viral conjunctivitis.
6. Enlist the two drugs for treating bacterial conjunctivitis with their adverse effects.
7. Explain the treatment of viral conjunctivitis.
8. Mention the diagnostic tests for conjunctivitis.
9. Mention the non-pharmacological treatment of conjunctivitis.
Chapter 6: Introduction to Rational Drug Use
1. Define rational drug use. Explain the role of pharmacist in rational drug use.
2. Explain WHO' s interventions or guidelines for promoting rational drug use.
3. Explain the role of pharmacis t in essential drug concept
4. Explain essential drug concepts.
5. Discuss the strategies to overcome irrational use of drugs.
6. Define rational drug use and essential drug concept.
7. What are the general guidelines for rational use of antibiotics
8. Mention the importance of essential drug concept.
9. Define rational drug use and list out its objectives.
10. Define essential drug list.
11. List the obstacles contributing towards rational use of drugs.