CHAPTER 1 : Pharmacoepidemiology - Definition and scope.
1. Define Pharmacoepidemiology and explain the need of Pharmacoepidemiology.
2. Write a note on Aims of Pharmacoepidemiology.
3. Applications of Pharmacoepidemiology.
4. Brief note on origin and evaluation of Pharmacoepidemiology.
5. Define pharmacoepidemiology and explain history and scope of pharmacoepidemiology.
CHAPTER 1.2 : Measurement of outcomes in pharmacoepidemiology
1. What is medication adherence. Explain the methods used to assess medication adherence.
2. Identify and explain the two major pharmacoepidemiological models used to test the relationship between drug exposure and patient outcomes.
3. Explain any three important methods of determining medication adherence.
4. Identify two common statistics used to describe the relationship between drug exposure and outcomes.
5. Explain criteria for causal nature of an association in pharmacoepidemiology study.
6. Explain in detail the measurement of outcomes in PE studies and explain in detail the drug use measures?
7. Identify two major pharmacoepidemological models used to test the relationship between drug exposure and patients outcomes and explain?
CHAPTER 1.3 : Concept of risk in pharmacoepidemiology
1. Define risk & enlist the various factors influencing risk in pharmacoepidemiology. Explain relative risk and Odd’s ratio with suitable examples.
2. Explain in detail the concept of risk and measurement of risk of an ADR with respect to Attributable risk, Relative risk, Time risk relationship and Odds ratio.
3. How is confidence interval measured for an odds ratio.
4. Explain the significance of relative risk and attributable risk.
5. How is confidence interval measured for an odds ratio?
CHAPTER 1.4 : Pharmacoepidemiological methods
1. What is bias. Explain the different types of bias in pharmacoepidemiology with examples.
2. Define DUE. Explain the steps involved in a DUE and mention the pharmacist role in DUE cycle.
3. Explain the merits and demerits of Cohort and case controlled study.
4. Define pharmacoepidemiology. Explain case control and cohort studies with suitable examples.
5. Explain in detail the cohort studies in Pharmacoepidemological study designs and explain in detail the cohort classification?
6. Define record linkage system and explain the process of record linkage system and also explain the probabilistic and deterministic approach in record linkage system?
7. What is bias? Explain the different types of bias with examples in pharmacoepidemiology?
8. Define DUE. Explain the steps involved in a DUE and mention the pharmacists role in DUE cycle.
9. Explain the merits and demerits of cohort and case controlled study.
10. Explain and mention merits and demerits of cohort and case-control studies.
11. Define DUE. Explain the steps involved in a DUE and mention the pharmacists’ role in DUE study.
12. Write a note on prescription event monitoring.
13. Define spontaneous reporting system.
14. What are meta analysis models. Give examples with strengths and weakness.
15. Explain the types of errors that can occur in a pharmacoepidemiological study.
16. What are the steps involved in formulating a study design in pharmacoepidemiology.
17. Explain methods, advantages and disadvantages of cross sectional study.
18. Write a note on case reports with its advantages and disadvantages?
19. Write a note on case series with its advantages and disadvantages?
20. Explain Multi Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA)?
21. Explain the approaches to controlling confounding variables?
22. Give the advantages and disadvantages of epidemiologic study designs?
23. What is analysis of secular trends on ecological studies?
24. Explain randomised clinical trial?
CHAPTER 1.5 : Sources of data for pharmacoepidemiological studies
1. What are the requirements of an ideal database. Write the strength and weakness of automated database.
2. Explain the benefits and limitations of a automated database.
3. What are the general operational principles for conducting an ad-hoc study?
4. Enlist the national and international post marketing safety databases?
5. What are reporting ratios?
6. Explain signal detection and approach for detecting signals from a post marketing safety database?
7. Explain about national pharmacovigilance system?
8. Explain the strengths and limitations of post marketing safety reporting system?
9. Define Odds ratio and data mining?
10. Explain about the claims and other administrative database?
11. What are the strengths and weakness of computerised database?
12. What are MRDBs?
13. What are electronic medical records (EMRs)?
14. Discuss the health maintenance organisations/ health plans?
15. Enlist the current and past multisite multiproject research programs within HMORN?
16. Explain about Cancer research network (CRN), Cardiovascular research network (CVRN), Vaccine safety database (VSD)? Explain the data structure of Medicaid database?
17. What are the strengths and weakness of Medicaid, Medicare, and department of Veterans Affairs?
18. Explain the prescription drug database in Canadian provincial database?
19. Explain record linkage, patient router files in pharmacy based medical record linkage system?
20. Define Ad-Hoc studies and enumerate the strength of Ad-Hoc studies?
21. What are the essential steps to be taken prior to selection of a design for in ad-hoc studies?
22. Explain protocol development in ad-hoc studies?
23. Explain the three key aspects in set up of ad-hoc studies?
24. What are the operational principles in conducting PE trend studies
25. Explain the strength and weakness of automated databases
CHAPTER 1.6 : Selected special applications of pharmacoepidemiology
1. Explain few important pharmacoepidemiological studies involving drug induced birth defects.
2. Describe studies of vaccine safety.
3. What is decision tree. With an example explain the use of decision tree in clinical decision analysis.
4. Describe the steps involved in formulating a study decision in pharmacoepidemiology.
5. Write a note on studies on vaccine safety.
6. Explain the potential contributions of pharmacoepidemiology?
7. Explain the overview of scientific method to investigate a research question along with three stage process?
CHAPTER 2 : Pharmacoeconomics - Definition, history, needs of pharmacoeconomic evaluations
1. Discuss the applications of pharmacoeconomics.
2. Define drug formulary? Explain various parameters which are analysed in formulary decision making process.
CHAPTER 2.2 : Pharmacoeconomic evaluation
1. What is cost utility analysis. Explain with suitable examples how the outcome measured using cost utility analysis.
2. Explain in detail the methods of Pharmacoeconomic evaluation. (a) Cost of illness evaluation. (b) Cost of minimization analysis. (c) Cost of benefit analysis. (d) Cost effective analysis. (e) cost utility analysis.
3. Define Pharmaco-economics and write the applications of Pharmacoeconomics and explain the types of Pharmacoeconomic evaluations. a) CMA b) CBA c) CEA d) CUA?
4. Explain the different types of cost in pharmacoeconomic study.
5. What is Markov model. Explain with examples.
6. Explain the steps involved in cost minimization analysis study.
7. Explain the factors to determine cost of illness study.
8. Explain in detail various costs involved in acquisition of health care facility.
9. What are the possible outcomes of a well-defined pharmacoeconomic study and what are the steps involved in planning a pharmacoeconomic study with pharmacoeconomic evaluation?
CHAPTER 3 : Applications of Pharmacoeconomics
1. Explain the applications of pharmacoeconomics.
2. Explain the role of pharmacoeconomics in formulary management.
The following model questions are for the guidance of the candidates and academicians appearing and conducting PharmD exams. The question papers only serve the educational purpose of self evaluation and revision after the respective topic is read and understood. Hope you make the best use of them.