Chapter 1: Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject. (description of the body as such planes and terminologies)
1.Define Anatomy and Physiology.
2.Define anatomical position, sagittal plane.
3.Mention the descriptive terms used in Anatomy.
Chapter 2: Structure of cell-its components and their functions.
1. Explain the structure and functions of cell membrane.**
2. Describe the functions of Golgi complex and mitochondria.
3. Mention different cell organelles with their functions.
4. Distinguish between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER). What are the
functions of ER?
5.Discuss the structure and functions ribosomes and lysomes.
6.Draw a neat labeled diagram of cell and write the functions of nucleus.
7. Write the functions of mitochondria.
8. Explain the functions of plasma membrane.
9. Why are mitochondria referred to as “power houses” of the cell?
10. Why the nucleus is called the control center of the cell? Write its functions.
11. Describe a mitochondria
12. Lysosomes and chromosomes
13. Mention the components of a cell.
Chapter 3: Elementary tissues of the human body
1.Classify tissues with examples.
2.Explain the differences among skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
3.Define cartilate, mention its type. Give the description, function and examples of each of them.
4.Differenceiate between loose and dense connective tissues.
5.Describe the difference types of epithelial tissues with examples.
6.Explain the structure and functions of neuron.
7. Classify muscular tissue with examples.
8. Classify connective tissue with examples.
9. Draw a neat labeled diagram of neuron.
10. Classify simple epithelium with examples.
11. Classify compound epithelium with examples.
12. Write the general characteristics of epithelial tissue.
13. Write the location and functions of Transitional epithelium.
Chapter 4: Osseous system
1. Classify joints with examples
2. Explain the Haversian canal system of bone.
3. Write the composition and functions of bone.
4. Describe angular and special movements of joints.
5. What is synovial joint? Explain its types with examples.
6.Classify axial skeletal system with examples.
7.Classify appendicular skeletal system with examples.
8.Classify bones on the basis of shape along with examples
9. Name the bones of the vertebral column.
10.Write the functions of bone.
11. Name synovial joints
12. Classify bone marrow and functions.
13. Define an articulation.
14. Write the histology of bone
15. Name the bones of cranium
16. Name the bone cells
17. Name the bones of the face.
18. Mention the bones of the upper limb.
19. Mention the bones of the lower limb.
Chapter 5: Haemopoietic system
1. Describe the constituents of blood and their functions.
2. Mention coagulation factors and write the mechanism of blood coagulation
3. Describe the process of Erythropoiesis and factors required or influencing errythropoiesis.
4. Describe the ABO system of blood grouping.
5. Describe the structure and functions of platelets.
6. Write any eight functions of blood.
7. What is anemia ? Explain its types
8. Classify leucocytes. Mention its functions.
9. Explain the factors influencing the blood coagulation.
10. What is basis for the Rh system? Write a note on hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis).
11. Describe the constituents of plasma and their functions.
12. What is anemia.?How it is caused.
13. Write stages of formation of RBC
14. Write the normal values and life span of the following:
(a)Hb; (b) WBC; (c) RBC; and (d) platelets
15. Mention different types of anaemia.
16. Thrombocytopenia purpura.
17. What is polycythemia? Give its reasons.
18. Write the functions of WBC
19. Write functions of plasma proteins.
20. What is Rh factor?
21. What is the difference between plasma and serum?
22. Compare erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes with respect to size, number per mm3, and life span.
23. What is hemophilia? Describe its signs and symptoms.
24. Write any four factors hastening the clotting.
Chapter 6: The lymphatic system
1. Describe the anatomy and functions of spleen.
2. Write a note on lymph and its functions.
3. Identify the components and functions of lymphatic system.
4. Describe the structure of a lymph node. Write its functions.
5. Write a note on disorders of lymph and lymphatic system.
6. What are lymph nodes?
7. Write about the functions of spleen.
8. Write the composition of lymph.
9. write the functions of lymph nodes
10. What is lymphoedema and splenomegaly?
Chapter 7: Cardiovascular system
1. Describe the internal anatomy of heart with a neat labeled diagram.
2. Define blood pressure and discuss various factors regulating the blood pressure in human being.
3. What is cardiac cycle? Describe various events of cardiac cycle.
4. Explain the normal ECG with labeled diagram.
5. Explain systemic and pulmonary circulation.
6. Explain coronary and portal blood circulation.
7. Write short note on heart valves and heart sounds.
8. Explain the gross anatomy of heart
9. Discuss the factors regulating blood pressure.
10 Mention the layers and valves of the heart.
11. Explain heart sounds
12. Define the term -angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.
13. Define cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrthmia.
14. Define Atherosclerosis and Congestive cardiac failure.
15. What is cardiac output? How it is calculated.
16. Draw ECG and label deflection waves.
17. Define hypertension and hypotension.
18. Mention the factors affecting blood pressure.
19. Mention the events of cardiac cycle.
Chapter 8: Respiratory system
1. What is external respiration? Explain the regulation of respiration.
2. Discuss gross anatomy of respiratory system with suitable diagram.
3. Give an account of transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
4. Explain the mechanism of respiration.
5. Write a short note on artificial respiration.
6. Explain mechanism of breathing.
7. Internal and external respiration.
8. Describe the location and anatomy of lungs
9. Explain the lung volumes and capacities.
10. Write the role of chemo receptors in respiration.
11. Define vital capacity. Write its normal value.
12. Define hypoxia and asphyxia
13. Define oxygen therapy and resuscitation.
14. Define dysbarism and tidal volume.
15. Name the muscles of respiration.
Chapter 9: Digestive system
1. Draw a neat diagram of GI tract. Explain how fats are digested and absorbed.
2. Describe the gross anatomy of stomach. Explain its physiological functions..
3. Write the anatomy of pancreas. Discuss the endocrine and exocrine secretions of
4. Describe the anatomy, histology and functions of small intestine and stomach.
5. Explain how digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats takes place.
6. Describe the anatomy of liver and mention its functions.
6. Describe the functions of liver.
8. Describe the digestion in small intestine.
9. Explain how digestion takes place in stomach.
10. Write the exocrine functions of pancreas.
11. List out the various enzymes present in the secretions of GIT.
12. Write composition and functions of gastric juice.
13. Name salivary glands and discuss the composition and functions of saliva.
14. Discuss the digestion of carbohydrates.
15. Discuss the food absorption in small intestine.
16. Explain peristaltic movement of small intestine.
17. Mention the functions of pancreatic enzymes.
18. Write the composition of bile.
19. Mention the functions of stomach.
20.What is liver cirrhosis?
21. Name digestive enzymes.
22. Give functions of bile.
23. Write exocrine functions of pancreas
24. What do mean by peptic ulcer
25. Draw a neat labeled diagram of stomach
26. Name the salivary glands and functions of their secretions.
Chapter 10: Nervous system
1. Describe the structure and functional areas of cerebrum.
2. Describe the origination and functions of autonomic nervous system.
3. Define Sympathetic and Parasympathetic system and discuss their anatomical and physiological differences.
4.Explain the functions of different cranial nerves.
5. Name the divisions of CNS and explain the functions of hypothalamus and cerebrum.
6. Describe sympathetic outflow.
7. Write effects of parasympathetic stimulation.
8. Define limbic system. Explain several of its functions.
9. Discuss the internal structure of spinal cord
10. 10 Write the composition and functions of cerebro spinal fluid (CSF).
11. Mention the anatomical location and functions of the following structures:
a). Basal ganglia. b). Thalamus.
12. What are the functions of medulla oblongata and pons.
13. Describe the meninges and ventricles in the brain?
14. What are the functions of cerebellum?
15. Define reflex action with example.
16. What is a ganglion? Give its role in nervous system.
17. What is synaptic cleft? State its function.
18. Classify nervous system.
19. Name the ventricles present in the brain.
20. What is extra pyramidal tract.
21. Write the functions of olfactory and optic nerve.
22. Enumerate the functions of hypothalamus.
23. Draw and label schematic diagram of spinal reflex arc.
24. Write main functions of cerebrospinal fluid.
25. Give a brief account of CTZ (chemoceptor trigerzone).
26. Draw and label diagram of a neuron.
Chapter 11: Urinary system
1. Draw a neat, labeled diagram of nephron and describe how urine is formed?
2. Describe the structure of kidney and explain its functions.
3. Write a note on Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system.
4. Write the structure of nephron with neat labeled diagram
5. Role of kidney in maintaining acid-base balance.
6. What are functions of kidney?
7. What is micturition? Describe the micturition reflex.
8. Write significance of inulin clearance test
9. What is renal clearance test? Mention its types.
Chapter 12: Endocrine system
1. Mention the hormones of pituitary gland and write the functions of each.
2. Write the synthesis, storage, release and functions of thyroid hormones.
3. Explain the physiological role of adrenal cortical hormones.
4. What are the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland? Discuss the regulation of their
secretion and physiological function.
5. Define hormone. Discuss various feedback mechanisms involved in the secretion of
6. Discuss the functions of thyroxin.
7. Write the functions of hormones of neurohypophysis.
8. Write the functions of insulin and glucogon
9. Write the functions of glucocrticoids.
10. Write a short note on parathyroid glands.
11. Describe the anatomical location, histology and physiological role of the pancreas..
12.Mention the hormones of anterior pituitary and explain their functions.
13. Write physiological functions of vasopressin.
14. Write symptoms of Addison’s disease.
15. Write outcome of hyperthyroidism.
16. What is cretinism?
17. State functions of hormones of adrenal medulla.
18. Define thyrotoxicosis and cretinism.
19. What is a pheochromocytoma and myxoedema.
20. What is goiter.
21. Functions of ADH and oxytocin*
22. Define acromegaly and gigantism.
23. Define diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
24. What is positive feedback mechanism?
Chapter 13: Reproductive system
1. Describe the different phases of female reproductive cycle
2. Explain the steps involved in the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
3. Describe the functions of ovary
4. Write a note on IUCD.
5. Write a short note on oral contraceptives
6. Write a note on menstrual cycle
7. Classify temporary methods of contraception for females.
8. Describe the structure of ovary and testes.
9. Write a note on the role of sex hormones in the regulation of menstrual cycle.
10. Write a note on female contraceptive devices.
11. Describe the internal structure and functions of testis.
12.Write a note on sex determination (genetic basis).
13. Explain spermatogenesis
14. Describe the mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives.
15. Define menstrual cycle.
16. What is a vasectomy and tubectomy?
17. Name the ducts of male reproductive system in order (proximal to distal).
18. What are sex hormones?
19. Define the reproduction and list the organs of male reproductive system..
20. list the organs of male reproductive system..
21. What is parturition ?
22. Define the terms- monarch and menopause.
23. Explain corpus leutium
24. Name Gonadotrophins and give their functions.
25. Write surgical methods of family planning.
26. Name few contraceptive methods.
Chapter 14: Sense organs
1. Write a neat, labeled diagram of eye and explain the physiology of vision
2. Write a neat, labeled diagram of ear and explain the physiology of hearing.
3. Draw a neat-labeled diagram of skin.
4. Describe the structure of eyeball
5. Draw a neat-labeled diagram of ear. What is the non-hearing function of ear?
6. Describe the structure of olfactory receptors.
7. What is glaucoma?
8. Mention the ear ossicles and their location.
9. Mention the papillae and taste buds.
10. What is myopia and hypermetropia?
11. What are the functions of skin?
12. Functions of photoreceptors.
13. Write the non-auditory functions of ear.
14. What are olfactory receptors?
15. What are gustatory receptors?
Chapter 15: Skeletal muscle
1. Write about the physiology of skeletal muscle contraction. Write a note on neuromuscular junction.
2. Describe the structure of skeletal muscle.
3. Write a short note on Myasthenia gravis.
4. How do isotonic and isometric contractions differ?
5. Mention the properties of skeletal muscle
6. Draw neat labeled diagram of sarcomere
7. Mention the proteins of skeletal muscle.
8.Define the term Rigor- Mortis
Chapter 16: Sports physiology
1. Enlist the drugs used by athletes.
2. Write the effect of exercises on CVS.
3.Write the effects of exercise on respiration.
4.Effects of athletic training on muscles.
5.Effects of exercise on body heat.
6.Effects of exercise on body fluid and salts.
The following model questions are for the guidance of the candidates and academicians appearing and conducting PharmD exams. The question papers only serve the educational purpose of self evaluation and revision after the respective topic is read and understood. Hope you make the best use of them.